This publication looks at the properties required for contact materials, and to identify those applications in which copper or copper alloys have special advantages. 1980, revised 2015. 36pp.
Some alloys can, including copper-beryllium, copper-chromium and copper-nickel-silicon. Most unalloyed coppers and brasses can only be softened by heating.
Yes they can be brazed by all processes. Appropriate silver brazing alloys should be used as phosphorus bearing brazing alloys cause a reaction with nickel to form a brittle phosphide phase.
Yes they can using appropriate 65% nickel-copper consumables to avoid iron dilution effects.
Three. They are: Copper-Zinc, Copper-Nickel, and Copper-Silicon.
This book, edited by Carol Powell and Roger Francis, is aimed at engineers new to the marine environment and those wanting to update their knowledge. Applications, commonly used alloy compositions, mechanical properties and the types of corrosion that the alloy groups are susceptible to are all described. The concluding section provides an explanation of galvanic corrosion in seawater and how each alloy group behaves when coupled to others
Three alloys are currently commercially available: copper-zinc, copper-nickel and copper-silicon.
Copper-zinc is good for flexible mesh containment systems.
Copper-nickel is good for rigid (e.g. welded) mesh.
Copper-silicon is good where rigid mesh is needed, or where panels can have flexible connections.
None, nickel silvers are copper-nickel-zinc alloys which have an attractive colour when polished.
Copper-Zinc is good for flexible mesh containment systems.
Copper-Nickel is good for rigid (e.g. welded) mesh.
Copper-Silicon is good where rigid mesh is needed, or where panels can have flexible connections.
Copper-nickels do not behave in the same way as stainless steels do towards corrosion by chlorides and these parameters are not appropriate to them. They do not have a critical temperature limit.
It is important that maximum velocity guidelines are adhered to for piping and heat exchanger/condenser service, as high velocities can cause impingement attack. Exposure to sulphides and ammonia in polluted seawater can lead to pitting or high corrosion rates and it is important to avoid these conditions, particularly during commissioning, start up and standby.